Application Note

APQI Steel Re-Rolling Application Guide

The application note preparation project is undertaken by Asia Power Quality Initiative and funded by the International Copper Association, India. The support in identifying the steel re-rolling mills by VIA, Nagpur and CREDA, Raipur helped to generate the factual data on power quality.

Power Quality in the IT. ITES. Data Center

Availability of reliable electrical power with good quality is one of the governing aspects of productivity for any sector of industry. Quality of power depends not only on supplier but also user of electrical power who due to non-linear load and improper operation can deter the grid power quality.

Voltage Fluctuations in Power Networks (Flicker)

Voltage fluctuations are series of voltage changes, or variations of the voltage waveform.The ratio of reactive power to the short circuit capacity is a simplified formula to calculate relative voltage fluctuations at the load end of a High Voltage (HV) supply system. A changing magnitude in the supply voltage results in a change in the luminous flux of a light source.

Practical Applications of Electrical Conductors

This white paper focuses on the two metals that offer high electrical conductivity at economically viable prices: aluminium and copper. It points out that silver is a superior conductor, while gold isn’t. In any case, the high prices of silver and gold makes their use in cables, wires, conductors and electrical machines uneconomical.

New Loads on Old Switches, Relays and Contactors

While power electronics is continuously superseding the traditional “hardware” solutions in electrical engineering, common mechanical contacts still remain important constituents of any electrical power distribution system. A survey of the types of switches, relays and contactors, their properties and areas of application will be given.

Earthing Systems: Basic Constructional Aspects

This Application Note discusses practical design of earthing electrodes, including the calculation of the earthing resistance for various electrode configurations, the materials used for electrodes and their corrosion performance. Equations are given for many common electrode geometries, including horizontal strips, rods, meshes, cable screens, and foundations.

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