Application Guide for Power Engineers - Part 1 - Earthing & Grounding of Electrical Systems

Synopsis

Sound earthing & grounding of the electrical installation is the fundamental requirement for safe and reliable operation. There is a lot of misconception among practicing engineers (both design and field) on this topic. Study of this application guide will bring clarity to the reader on this topic.

Earthing methods for different applications like EHV Switchyard, MV and LV systems and earthing application to special areas like Solar farms, GIS terminations, C&I (Control & Instrumentation) systems in power and industrial plants are covered. Remarks on mis-interpretation of IE rules are made.

The reader will understand why different grounding methods are adopted at different voltage levels. Relationship between Grounding and Transformer Ampere Turns Balance theory is clearly brought out which is the cornerstone of grounding exercise. Features of ungrounded and grounded systems are covered in detail including demystification of zig zag connection. Ready to use spread sheets for sizing of NGT/NGR are given.Supported by copious illustrations from field experience, fundamental concepts of grounding are explained by solving problems of gradually increasing complexity.

Various practices adopted for Neutral grounding of generator are described.Students will tremendously benefit by studying this guide as it combines theory with lot of practical examples. He/She will acquire the necessary skills upfront needed by industry.The design engineer or consultants will find the guide very useful to perform optimum design.

Origin of many nuisance tripping or power quality issues is poor earthing/grounding. The practicing and field engineers will be able to address many of the problems encountered at site due to faulty earthing and grounding.

About the Author

Dr. Rajamani obtained his Ph.D in Electrical Power Systems from IIT Bombay in 1975. From 1976 to 1996, he was with Tata Consulting Engineers, Mumbai. He was involved in design of electrical systems for industrial plants, thermal and nuclear power plants and Static VAR compensators.

From 1997 to 1998, he was with General Electric, Schenectady, USA working on dynamic stability simulations for integrated operations of gas turbines with steel plant loads. From 1999 to 2003, he was with Power System Consultants, Mumbai working on specialized protection problems and islanding. From 2004, he was with Reliance Infrastructure Ltd.

Presently he is with Adani Electricity Mumbai Ltd. He guides the electrical group working on distribution, transmission, switchyard and generation (power plant) projects. His other areas of interest are SCADA-DMS and Power Quality Monitoring.

He has conducted more than 150 hard core technical courses. His passion is now teaching and mentoring.

Dr Rajamani have been an ardent admirer of APQI platform as National Support Network (NSN) partner and Guide the application research activity.

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